Keep calm and career on

“The future of universities” – this UK event was sold out within hours of being publicised. Not surprising, given the uncertainty of Brexit and its impact on funding, students, researchers and the very nature of what a university is for. Change is the only unchanging certainty in life, but no one could have predicted how much the world would alter in just one year, and we haven’t even started yet; elections are coming up in many influential European countries and who knows what will happen in America?


“Keep calm and carry on” is a famous motivational slogan from WWII and it’s a good mantra to hang on to right now. In situations where the political “powers that be” are playing a game over which you have little or no control, carry on doing what you’re doing, and be prepared to stand firm on your beliefs and principles. At the personal level, you are talented individuals who still have influence over key aspects of your life: For example, what’s your USP? Knowing your own “Unique Selling Point” and how to promote yourself as the “go-to person” for your area of expertise is a skill in itself nowadays, especially in this era of social media networking. It could be your specific bioscience knowledge, technical or teaching talents, personal attributes or even your connections which make you a valuable commodity in a particular employment sector. Unlike socio-economic and political influences, these are factors that are under your control, so why not think about focussing on them and developing yourself further. It will make you stronger and wiser.

For my part, I consider my strengths to be advising and writing – usually around career related issues. It’s a far cry from my early days of doing research in the lab, where I was well away from my comfort zone, but where I learned that I really enjoy the company of scientists. They (generally) manage to combine mindful intelligence with having fun and I feel privileged to have spent the most-part of my career working amongst them.

And on that note, I leave you with these words, which have been disseminated widely since they were first written by Kent M. Keith in 1968.

People are often unreasonable, illogical and self-centred;
Forgive them anyway.
If you are kind, people may accuse you of selfish, ulterior motives;
Be kind anyway.
If you are successful, you will win some false friends and some true enemies;
Succeed anyway.
If you are honest and frank, people may cheat you;
Be honest and frank anyway.
What you spend years building, someone could destroy overnight;
Build anyway.
If you find serenity and happiness, they may be jealous;
Be happy anyway.
The good you do today, people will often forget tomorrow;
Do good anyway.
Give the world the best you have, and it may never be enough;
Give the world the best you’ve got anyway.
You see, in the final analysis, it is between you and your God;
It was never between you and them anyway.

What’s guiding your career?

What’s the secret of career success? Is it down to luck or just hard work? Is it about who you know rather than what you know? Is there a ‘career success’ formula?

These are questions that can run through people’s heads when they are thinking about their careers and what path or decisions they should take. It can make them procrastinate and over-think their career decisions, making them feel confused and diminishing their confidence levels. They come to me asking for direction, saying, “Tell me what I should do”. My answer? “Do something!”

That’s after a full guidance interview of course, where we journey together through the present and the past, before thinking about the future and the question of what action to take. I act as a mirror, reflecting back to my client, questioning their thoughts, their assertions, challenging their long-held beliefs and helping them to find connections and, ultimately, a way forward into the future.

This is what professional career guidance is all about – career professionals are not going to tell you what to do, but we can help you to find your own answers using recognised career theory and documented practitioner experience. It’s not rocket science and there is no magic formula. Compare your career decision with buying or renting a house. On what do you base your decision? Price, location, reputation of the area, how many rooms, position etc. – it may not be perfect but the one you choose is the one that is available at the time and ticks most of the boxes and you can always change it a bit to suit your needs. Alternatively, you can choose to build your own house, design it to your particular specifications and project-manage the whole process. Compare this with being employed and being a self-employed entrepreneur: the former is dependent on what the market is currently offering and your own career situation at that particular time; the latter is more likely to get the design that suits you best, but there is a greater risk involved.

So, what am I getting at here? Your career is in your hands. I can’t tell you what to do as you know yourself much better than I do. However, what I can help you with is sorting out and managing all those thoughts whizzing around in your head and possibly driving you mad:  the number of options you have; your hopes and fears; your family’s hopes and fears; your supervisor’s opinion; your need for success but your sense of failure; your feeling of powerlessness in the face of political pressures; your frustrations; your personal potential and the over-riding optimism you have to push ahead and fulfil your career ambitions. I can also help you to find helpful networks, sources of information and connections.

So, in conclusion, if I had to give one piece of careers advice, I would encourage everyone to be proactive and positive. If you listen to most people’s career stories they will mention a ‘happenstance’ moment when an unexpected event or meeting put their career on a new and exciting footing. If you do stuff, get out and about, engage with social media, network, find a mentor, go to meetings, sign up for courses, volunteer for things, get yourself known and recognised, you will be surprised by the number of career opportunities that come your way.

Bon chance!


The Business of Science

Thinking of getting into business? Many of those who embark on a PhD will have been considering a number of other options before making their final choice to commit 3 – 4 years (or more) devoted to research. Amongst their number are budding entrepreneurs, management consultants and businessmen/women. During their PhD, these students often have their eye on applied opportunities associated with their research and may get involved in outreach and impact activities, generating patents or even launching a spin-out company. Recently, I was asked by a PhD student about ways in which she could bolster her business acumen and experience to enhance her chances of entering a career in business post-PhD. I asked my network of career professionals (hat tip to those who responded) and here’s a list of 10 ideas they came up with:

  1. Get involved in enterprise programmes such as YES Biotechnology or join (set up) an entrepreneur association at your university.
  2. If your PhD includes the opportunity to do an internship, aim to spend your time in a business role if possible.
  3. Contact your university business/management school to ask their advice and/or investigate their business courses on campus. You might decide to take a part-time master’s degree or diploma course during or after your PhD (e.g. MSc Bioentrepreneurship at Karolinksa Institute).
  4. Investigate other potential management courses, eg online MBAs, MOOCS, Summer school business courses and others such as EIT Health, EMBO and College des Ingenieurs. Pharma and business companies also run short courses. A Google search might help to locate opportunities in your country.
  5. Contact your university/institute alumni network and ask to get in touch with former PhD students who have moved into business careers. They may be able to give you advice, act as a mentor or put you in contact with potential employers.
  6. Use LinkedIn to do a search to find former PhD students working in science business. Look at their work experience history, any extra qualifications and, if you link with them, ask their advice on entering their line of business.
  7. If there is a science park on or nearby your campus aim to make contact with one or more relevant companies there and see if you can spend time shadowing or even undertaking some work with them.
  8. Talk to your university careers service which will have links to employers with graduate management recruitment programmes, e.g. McKinsey, PwC, Anderson IT Consulting and healthcare consultancies.
  9. Attend career, alumni and employer fairs such as those organised at your university and regionally, as well as specialist scientific careers events such as Europbio, NatureJobs and BCF.
  10. Further information:

You may have the will, but you also need to be able to demonstrate that you are developing relevant management-related skills to convince employers of your personal qualities and potential business ability. Therefore, make sure you get involved in activities during your PhD to add breadth to your CV, such as team sports, organising events, representation on committees and interaction with outside organisations. These will help to show that you are an active, team-orientated results-driven person with proven communication skills – qualities that many companies look for in their new recruits.

Flying High

mo farah

As research scientists, you will know the excitement of success, not least of all the moment when you passed your PhD defence. For more seasoned postdocs, that may be some time ago, for PhD students, it’s a future pleasure to look forward to. However, staying in the present, see if you can recall your most recent achievement. It can be anything that makes you feel a sense of pride and accomplishment.  It doesn’t have to be a paper in Nature, an international collaboration or successful funding bid. These revered equivalents of Olympic gold, silver and bronze represent some of the most recognised attainments amongst the research community. However, as the sports teacher of double-gold medal winner, Mo Farah, pointed out in an interview during the Olympic games in Rio, it’s easy for us to become obsessed with medals and distracted by league tables, whilst neglecting all those who have managed to qualify and take part, which is an outstanding achievement in itself.

Positive thinking

So, think again. What is your most recent achievement? It can be anything that makes you feel good about yourself, something that provokes a sense of satisfaction when you think about it. It could be a professional or personal accomplishment, something major or relatively small. It has taken a lot of talent and effort to get this far in your career, so whether you’ve recently generated some new results, completed your analysis, started to write your thesis, given a great lecture, written a blog or even juggled a family event or run your personal best, take some time to reflect and revel in your achievement.  Focusing on the positive can help you through the dark days when your experiments aren’t working or your paper has just been rejected. Recall something that you have done well and look to the future to boost your confidence. Write it down and then get on with working on tomorrow’s achievement.

Positive action

Researchers and PhD students have many opportunities to apply for awards, fellowships and a variety of competitions. For example, my organisation, the Society for Experimental Biology (SEB), each year recognises four early career leaders in the fields of education, plant, cell and animal biology through its ‘president’s medal awards’. It also hosts a Young Scientists Award session and poster prizes during its annual conference, as do many other scientific meetings. This is a great way to add additional evidence of your research excellence to your CV. However, belonging to learned societies and professional bodies and attending conferences and meetings can also help you to gain a sense of achievement: It might be making links with other bioscientists leading to a lab visit or even a job offer, it could be winning a travel grant to attend a conference, an informal chat which opens up a new line of thinking, or simply experiencing an international scientific meeting for the first time.

My own personal achievements range from publishing my first book, which took me about two years to write, through to everyday stuff such as writing a couple of articles for our society magazine and completing the programme for a one-day conference I’m involved in organising. I even count this blog as an achievement, since I set myself a goal of writing one per month and I’m two days ahead of my February deadline.

Think about what you’ve achieved at the end of every day and you may well surprise yourself!

Keep on, keepin’ on

2016-11-15 15.41.49

What do you do when you love being a postdoc, but you know you’re living on borrowed (contract) time? Here’s 8 ways to keep on, keepin’ on.

This month I’ve been organising a one-day career workshop for bioscience mid/senior postdocs, which is scheduled to take place at the end of February in London. Workshops aimed at postgraduate students tend to be more straightforward as everyone is ultimately aiming for the same goal – a successful PhD defence or viva leading to graduation and the coveted doctoral prize. Following on from this, graduates follow a number of career paths; most leave for non-academic careers, however a significant number, especially those in science, choose to remain within academic research (universities and research institutes). Once a postdoc, career goals become more diverse and include: aiming for a permanent tenure-track academic post, an enviable list of publications in high impact journals, making ground-breaking discoveries, intellectual stimulation and even the Nobel Prize. These are highly aspirational aims, but as many academics will tell you, you need to be highly determined, competitive and even lucky if you are to be one of the few who “make it”. And few they are, compared with the numbers who embark on the initial postdoctoral career path, ultimately culminating in the long-term or ‘serial’ postdoc situation which befalls many.

Sometimes unwittingly, but in many cases, very much open-eyed, postdoctoral researchers embrace the opportunity to “keep on keepin’ on” with their contracts, even though they suspect they will never secure a permanent post. The lifestyle is good, comfortable and rewarding – I call it the “velvet rut” – but as much as it is a nice place to be, it will disappear one day. I have seen this happen to people in their 40s who end up taking jobs in the local book shop, government office or departmental stores at the university. They compromise their careers in favour of their personal goals to remain in the local area, keep their kids in the school just around the corner or in order to stay with their friends or support their partner or wider family. Unless this is where you see yourself in a few years’ time, here are some suggestions and career strategies:

  1. For every year that passes, and every postdoc position that you take on, always consider your own personal and professional development. Ask to do more; take on more responsibilities, write papers and apply for funding applications; initiate new collaborations; take on a teaching load, supervise masters students, manage aspects of the lab such as resources, budgets, people; give conference talks, etc. In other words “act up” in the role of an academic, even if you’re not one. You never know where it may lead.
  2. Identify your own Unique Selling Point – USP(s). What are you good at? What are you known for? E.g. a research specialism, technical skills or tools, innovative teaching & learning, etc. Whatever it is, try to improve and keep up to date with its development through courses, workshops, lab visits or collaborations. Learn new ways of doing things and stay in touch or ahead of the game!
  3. Consider research opportunities away from your own field of interest. Some areas of research are on the rise, attracting more funding and moving across into them could open up new and more obtainable opportunities.
  4. Look for on-line remote-working type jobs, e.g. in publishing and communication. There is an increasing need for journal editors (proofing and editing) which might be ideal for those who enjoy home-working. Similarly, websites need science writers who can provide copy and bring visitors to their sites.
  5. If you’re happy to move across into the management/administrative side of the university or institute, many of your organisational, analytical and project management skills will be an asset when you apply for internally advertised posts. It means changing roles, but enjoying the same work environment.
  6. Consider targeting small companies, rather than the larger more well-known ones, as these are more akin to the working environment of a research group, with flatter management and the opportunity to problem solve and multi-task. [LinkedIn can help you to locate them as they have ‘number of employees’ as one of their search criteria].
  7. Use your networks and social media such as LinkedIn to track down people doing the types of job you would like to do, especially if they are PhD alumni of your university or any others with which you’re associated, as they will be more willing to help you. The more networking you do, the more people who know about you, the more opportunities will come your way. An on-line presence can especially help to boost your profile, e.g. Researchgate, LinkedIn or Twitter.
  8. Try to get help and support if it is available in your institution, or contact someone like myself for individual coaching and advice. Even find a supportive empathetic colleague in whom to confide. Sometimes all you need is someone to help boost your confidence and to help empower you to say to yourself “Yes, I can do that!”

I hope you found this (rather long) blog useful and maybe I’ll see you at one of our postdoc workshops in the future 🙂

Looking for a new job? Keep your acquaintances close!


When it comes to finding out about new jobs – or, for that matter, new information, or new ideas – ‘weak ties’ are always more important than ‘strong ties’. This is not surprising when you think about it – whilst your friends are closely associated with your personal network, your acquaintances tend to occupy quite a different world to you, so that they are more likely to know something or someone that you don’t. In this way they make great ‘connectors’, linking you to new information and people, new jobs and employment networks.

This research finding, originally conducted by sociologist, Mark Granovetter, in 1974 was reported in Malcolm Gladwell’s “The Tipping Point”, a book I was reading over Christmas, whilst also digesting rather a lot of high calorie food! Subtitled, “How little things make a big difference”, the book demonstrates how concepts such as “the law of the few” and “the power of context” can lead to escalated effects such as epidemics, successful mass media campaigns and increased social power.

Many people, when they look back over their life and tell their ‘career story’, quite often mention a turning point; something that happened such as a chance meeting or piece of information which transformed their lives, changed or boosted their career direction. Such events can act as a ‘tipping point’, defined by Gladwell as one dramatic moment when everything can change all at once. People also refer to these instances as their ‘lucky’ moment. They say things like, “I just happened to bump into someone who told me about a great job opportunity” or “I attended a conference I’d found out about on Twitter, where I met my current supervisor” or “I attended a career workshop where the tutor put me in touch with one of her contacts and from there I managed to find my first job in science communication”.  That last one was me – I was the workshop tutor who acted as the ‘connector’ to help one of my workshop delegates to get connected to the science communication community.

Social media, especially Twitter [currently], are vast networks which often get into the news as the perpetrators of viral stories (good and bad) – they can cause information epidemics very quickly and are a powerful example of how one tweet can escalate globally, depending on factors such as who posted it, the topic and the controversy. Within this global network, more specialised sub-communities exist where people follow each other and tweet a variety of fascinating and useful information (including jobs) connected with their particular interests. All of our connections on social media are potential ‘connectors’ – the fact that they are engaging with these networks means they are likely to be conducive to approaches from people in their circles, so I recommend that you join one or two of them, depending on your career plans.

So if you look a bit closer, you’ll probably find that people are usually the makers of their own luck. They have put themselves ‘out there’ by being proactive, being in the right place at the right time, instigating semi-formal introductions and initiating interactions with acquaintances or ‘strangers’. One or more of their many ‘connectors’ are likely to have put them in the path of a person or piece of information which has acted as a tipping point in their career, acting as their lucky moment, and leading them to where they are now.

Related content: 10 ways to find your next job

Patently obvious careers

November’s blog showcases Patent Examiner, a popular career choice for researchers [note: not to be confused with Patent Lawyer/Attorney]. “Miguel” works in the European Patent office and explains his role and what it takes to get into this profession.

Patent examiner, European Patent office

Job Description

The minimum requirements for the role of patent examiner at EPO is an undergraduate degree. However, in reality, most (if not all) of the 300 examiners working in the biotechnology cluster have a PhD and postdoctoral experience. The reason for this is that the job requires highly critical analytical skills and the ability to have meaningful in-depth scientific discussions with the patent applicants. The information and analysis is highly specific and you need to be able to de-construct the details of the application to determine its value and contribution to the advancement of a particular technology.

Only 30 – 40% of patent applications are accepted per year and the process, from start to finish, lasts several years. I work in a team of three but our work is carried out individually. Each of us works on our own applications. I research databases, examine all the information, analyse the contribution and build up a dossier. I write a report highlighting the strong and weak points of the application and give my opinion on the patentability of the invention. I then negotiate with the applicants through an exchange of letters until we reach an agreement or their application is rejected, in which case I meet with the applicants, their lawyers and supporters at a hearing with my other two colleagues to make the final decision and to close the case.

In addition to scientific expertise and a highly critical analytical mind, language skills (English, French and German) are required by the EPO. You need to have excellent knowledge of two in order to apply but a third is usually desirable. If your language skills are not good enough they will ask you to go away and improve on them before you can are accepted for the job. The majority of employees here are from France and Germany but smaller countries where language skills are more important such as Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland are well represented. Notable under-represented large countries include the UK, Portugal, Greece, Italy and Spain.


Towards the end of my PhD in molecular genetics at the Università Autonoma and CSIC in Madrid I started looking for postdoctoral positions. I wasn’t convinced of aiming for a career in academia; during my PhD I had seen many highly talented researchers striving for this only to be unsuccessful due to the very strong competition.  Therefore I focussed on research posts in industry and secured a position in a small start-up company in Germany – a spin-out company from the Max Planck Institute. The job was ideal – it was a permanent post and I felt more valued than in academia; I led a small team and could delegate more routine tasks so I could focus on reading, experimental design and analysing data. After two years, however, it was clear the company was not really taking off so I started to look at other options. As well as again looking for research posts, I saw an advertisement for a patent examiner in Nature which caught my attention. I had never considered this as a career before. I had been on the other side of the process as a patent applicant but I could never understand a word of the legal aspects of the document. I decided to apply to see what happened and as I looked more closely at the job and working conditions, I became more interested. I was attracted by the prospect of being at the forefront of technological developments and being privy to the very latest breakthroughs. Also, now that I understand the legal side of the job, I find I enjoy it as much as the science!

The Career factors:

Examine jobs in detail

With such a range of jobs being advertised it’s difficult to know what would suit you. Even if you decide to leave academic research you still tend to consider research but instead in an alternative organisation. This is probably because most of us haven’t any idea of what else is on offer or whether we would enjoy it (or be good at it). When I applied for the patent examiner post I didn’t take it seriously to begin with – I had just seen that it was science-related and would involve a visit to The Hague for interview which seemed quite appealing.  However, if you look more closely at the detailed specifications of vacancies, rather than only considering the specific subject knowledge and qualifications, you start to get a much better idea about the job. Employers want to know you can do the job and if you’re a bright person with the ability to learn new things they will happily take you on if you have the right skills and potential.


Clearly this is a job for someone who is comfortable working with highly complex scientific information across the field of biotechnology and who has very well developed analytical skills. Furthermore, this is quite an isolated role with people working individually on their own projects with limited interaction with others in their team. This prospect will be appealing to some but not to others and will depend on personal factors; your personality and the skills you enjoy using are more important when choosing your career than your specific subject discipline. When you examine job descriptions look at the skills and personal attributes they require and don’t dwell too much on specific subject knowledge.

Further information

European Patent Office
US Patent and Trademark office
Chartered patent attorneys

This career profile is one of 20 case studies showcased in my book “Career planning for research bioscientists”

The right way?

Which career is ‘right’ for you? Many researchers recognise the need to consider careers other than those based in academia due to a shortage of tenured posts. However, have you ever thought that you may be a better ‘fit’ for an alternative career? Your personality, skills and personal agenda may not suit the rigours of academic life. You may be happier working in a small research company, in an advisory role or in a more team-orientated environment. Blogs and careers information posted on others sites feature alternative careers which you could seriously consider, but how do you know you will be suited to them, or that you will enjoy them?

“Knowing others is wisdom, knowing yourself is enlightenment”, Lao Tzu.

Self-awareness features in most theoretical models of career planning along with more practical activities such as job-seeking, networking and making applications. And while the latter activities are important, it is self-awareness which is really fundamental to the process. It underpins your ability to make informed decisions about your career, assess which jobs might suit you and where your strengths lie. Self-awareness can also help you to make decisions about your personal development and even improve your performance at interview.

SELF-AWARENESSIn the context of career planning, self-awareness can be defined by a range of personal factors including (amongst others) interests, knowledge, skills, personality, values, intelligence, personal situation, gender, cultural and social background. The two factors with which most of us define ourselves (especially in work) are knowledge and interests. They are also perhaps the most influential in terms of career choice. As researchers, your interest in and knowledge of your academic subject and the particular research specialism you have chosen is what has, most probably, brought you to your current position. However, basing your career solely on your knowledge and disciplinary interests can limit your options. Deep career thinking requires a broader awareness of ‘you’ so that you widen your career perspectives and broaden your options. Research tasks and other activities may more accurately reveal where your career interests lie: you may enjoy planning and designing your research over practical work; perhaps problem-solving and analysis is what truly interests you or maybe communication is your real passion. Job descriptions are packed full of skills which vary according to the type of job being advertised. Being able to recognise the skills you possess and, in particular, those you enjoy using or would like to develop further, can provide clues to the type of jobs and roles to which you are most suited.

Your motivational values are at the heart of your ‘self’ and will influence decisions you make about the kind of work which attracts you, your preferred professional role and working environment (e.g. commercial, charitable or educational). Values can alter during the course of your lifetime depending on your situation. In addition, awareness of your personality can also increase your personal effectiveness in many areas of your life including career planning. As well as helping you to make informed career decisions, it can have a more subtle influence such as improving your understanding of others and thereby your personal and professional relationships. Being aware of your personality type and your preferred way of doing things can help you to organise your time and workload more effectively and reveal areas for personal development.

So, if you’re wondering which career might be ‘right’ for you remember to consider factors such as your skills, personal qualities and values to help you to make an informed decision. To find out more about self-awareness, try the following publications: ‘What color is your parachute’ and ‘The art of building windmills’. The Career Choice Indicator is a useful tool linking interests with career options and my book, ‘Career planning for research bioscientists’ contains three practical exercises (skills, personality and values), relevant to all postdoctoral researchers.



Fluid Career Dynamics

What do the following have in common?

Collaboration and conferences, access to technology, flexibility, mobility, creativity and problem solving, project management, networking, peer-to-peer discussions, having intellectual freedom, working in an international environment and learning something new every day.


These are just a few of the opportunities identified by PhD students and researchers during my recent career planning workshops, all considered to be ways to help improve their job prospects and move their careers forward. We were taking a positive look at ways to navigate the rather fluid career path of today’s academic research scientist. Unlike the career path of their older supervisors and other academics in their department, modern-day students and postdocs are sailing their careers in much more choppy and unpredictable waters. Competition amongst fixed-term contract researchers is high, with very few permanent islands of academic career stability. This is where capitalising on personal strengths, as well as identifying and creating opportunities, will help you to steer a course towards a more sustainable career destination.

Having career insecurity is not the domain of academic researchers alone. Many other occupations experience the same precarious employment conditions; even ‘permanent’ posts are not permanent. The good news for PhD students and researchers is that they have a unique set of skills and opportunities which can hold them in good stead for keeping themselves as employable as possible. Aptitude and talent is not necessarily the issue for scientists, it’s being aware of these attributes and appreciating how they can be transferred into other career sectors, as well as making progress towards an academic career.

Employers love scientists: Having a can-do attitude, being unafraid of technology and new developments, as well as problem solving and initiating new ways of doing things are all highly attractive to companies and businesses, who are operating in a global and fast-paced world market. Keeping ahead of their competitors is crucial and they rely on innovative and enterprising staff to demonstrate creativity and entrepreneurship as well as flexibility and a willingness to learn.

Collaboration and conferences, working in an international environment and having the opportunity to work in different countries also provide academic researchers with fantastic opportunities to demonstrate cooperation and multi-national and cultural experience. Having an international outlook, being able to communicate with a wide range of people and generally broadening your horizons go a long way to ‘going a long way’ in your career.

So, as science researchers look to your current strengths and consider how you can expand on them by taking as many opportunities to develop, learn and progress as possible. Look back over the past year and ensure that you are always doing new things and building on your experiences. In this way you are more likely to be able to sail your career in a favourable direction.

10 ways to find your next job

I recall it was a friend who found my first job for me, when she alerted me to a research post she’d seen advertised in The Guardian newspaper. Three years later, I changed jobs into scientific publishing, having applied for a few posts, which had been advertised in the New Scientist. That was over 20 years ago before the days of the internet and social media, but also in the days when there was less competition for jobs. I’m sure not many people scour hard copy magazines and other publications when looking for a job nowadays, preferring instead to search their websites. Old fashioned networking is still the best way to secure a new job – with (anecdotally) less than 30% of jobs being advertised this is not surprising – but face-to-face encounters are not so necessary when the world can be accessed at the touch of a few keyboard buttons.

The job market has changed over my working lifetime and continues to evolve. Technology, economics, social and political pressures drive these changes; the pharmaceutical industry is a classic example of a sector which used to employ huge numbers of employees in all areas of its business, including research, manufacturing and production, human resources, clinical trials and communications. Not only has it been moving its core manufacturing and production into Asia in recent decades, it has also broken up its business and now outsources many of its needs to specialised smaller companies such as contract research organisations (CROs), recruitment companies and medical communications. This makes it harder to find jobs in these areas since smaller companies are less well known and don’t recruit new employees on a large scale.

So how can you make sure you can gain access to the widest range of opportunities available to you according to your career interests? Here are some suggestions:

  1. Investigate websites and recruitment agencies which are advertising in the career sector you are targeting. For example, specific academic job sites such as,, and advertise postdoctoral and tenured academic posts, whilst lists of companies and jobs in industry can be found on dedicated sites such as, contract research organisations,, and
  2. Don’t rely on keywords and RSS feeds to find a job as these will limit your search. Similar jobs can have very different titles these days, even postdoctoral research posts, so be more creative or you could be missing out on dozens of opportunities.
  3. Subscribe to discussions lists. Not only do they post useful information from members, they advertise jobs too. For example, I’m signed up to a science communication list.
  4. Use your network. People are work, work is people – it is people who will either directly or indirectly open doors to your next job. You are surrounded by a network of people who, in turn are connected to others. All these people could help you with your transition by passing on information about possible openings, advising or mentoring you, directly employing you, recommending you, and so on. Don’t limit your network to your immediate work colleagues, but consider those you have worked with in the past, as well as friends, family and others – who knows what gems of wisdom, inside information or contacts they may have to help you on your way.
  5. USE SOCIAL MEDIA. You can expand your network exponentially by engaging with social media for professional purposes. Use Researchgate if you are aiming for an academic career and/or LinkedIn for company jobs. Twitter is invaluable for keeping in touch with other professionals and finding out about latest interest stories, as well as job opportunities. Twitter is also great for conferences.
  6. Join one or more learned societies. These charitable organisations provide benefits to researchers and students, such as reduced registration to conferences, travel grants, competitions, a newsletter, networking and mentoring opportunities, even the chance to get directly involved in their activities.
  7. Make the most of conferences: Unless you use these events to ensure you get some face-to-face contact with people, you are wasting an amazing opportunity. Look at the programme before you go, target people you want to speak to, try to get into the spotlight by presenting a paper, talk to exhibitors (many of whom have a PhD and moved into industry).
  8. Expand your horizons by finding out about opportunities available in other countries. If you are mobile and happy to move abroad make use of websites such as Euraxess which will help you to make the move. This service is available in all countries across Europe and they also advertise jobs. Other organisations and websites exist for  jobs outside of Europe, for example Contact Singapore and Australia.
  9. Take a wider interest in your field: read around the subject through broader interest publications, social media networks and learned societies. Get involved in outreach activities with the public or schools, write a blog or set up a departmental journal club. Establish closer links with people in industry with whom you are collaborating or those nearby within the university campus or on a nearby science park.
  10. Write speculatively to potential employers, or those working in the industry which you want to move into, either enquiring about future job opportunities or to ask for information. Try to set up a visit or phone/Skype call. Don’t ask for a job directly, be more subtle and ask if you can have 10 minutes of their time to ask about the research group/core business, are there likely to be positions coming up in the near future. If you are changing careers ask about their own career path, for example, how they make the transition out of academia, do they have any advice for you.

The strategy you take for your next career transition will depend on you, your experience, ambitions and many other factors so there is no one solution to the best action to take. Hopefully the 10 suggestions above will give you a good starting point.