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Picking a postdoc

Not all postdocs are the same

Choosing the ‘right’ postdoctoral position can be critical to career success and even to the mental health and well-being of early career researchers. I remember at the start of a career counselling interview, a postdoc once telling me that she felt less confident as a postdoc than she had as a PhD student. During the hour-long session it emerged that the work environment, research topic and location of her postdoc were all contributing factors to her current state of mind. If she could have her time again, my client said she would have chosen differently.

Research from surveys of doctoral destinations (e.g. European Science Foundation 2017; Vitae 2008/10) show that a high proportion of PhD students in the Life Sciences (and other disciplines) continue their careers within the academic research sector as postdoctoral researchers. The reasons for this are many and varied but, fundamentally, graduates say they have enjoyed their PhD research and are keen to extend this experience as a postdoctoral researcher and, of course, for many, to go on to secure a permanent academic position. Perhaps this applies to you too.

Postdoctoral research positions are relatively easy to secure compared to moving into industry, due to the familiarity of the work culture, network connections and specific research knowledge, as well as being able to demonstrate directly relevant experience and skills in applications and interviews. Most non-academic employers welcome applicants with postdoctoral experience, especially into research-related posts, if the applicant can demonstrate associated interpersonal skills alongside their research and technical abilities.

Doing a postdoc after a PhD can be a very good career decision for doctoral graduates. The issue isn’t whether or not to do one, it’s making sure to pick the ‘right’ postdoc to suit you and your career aspirations. Here, I list four key questions to consider when making your decision:


Consider first your motivation for continuing on to do a postdoctoral post. What do you want to achieve from it and how will it contribute to your continuing professional development? What will it add to your current skills and experience and how will this contribute to your securing your next job, whether within or outside of academia? If you’re aiming for a permanent academic position in a University, you might look for a postdoctoral position that allows you to develop new avenues of research to gain your independence or that involves a student focus to help you to build up your teaching and pastoral portfolio. If, however, you intend to move into industry after your postdoc, you might benefit from a research project that is more applied, that helps you to build and develop the skills you will need in your future industry-based career. Perhaps the research group is collaborating with a company, a hospital or start-up enterprise or maybe the research programme offers the opportunity to get entrepreneurial training or to do an internship.

Of course, a research career outside of academia is not wholly reliant on postdoctoral experience so, on reflection, you may decide to bypass this option and move directly to investigating and applying for industry/business research opportunities. And, if it transpires that research is not at the heart of your career ambitions, you may want to reconsider your motivation to take up a postdoctoral position when you could be moving ahead and gaining experience within your chosen career of interest.


Some PhD graduates continue to pursue their current research interests within another research group in a similar field, or even within the same group. It’s important to be motivated, and even passionate, about your research topic, but bear in mind what new learning and experiences you’ll develop in your new post that will take your career forward. Using the same techniques and working with the same people will not extend your horizons in terms of your research profile, network and employability. Moving outside of your current field of interest may be a challenging prospect, but consider how your skills will be of value to another research field, as well as networking with them to gain their confidence.  

You may wish to continue to develop your research-associated experiences such as outreach, enterprise or organisational activities with which you’ve been engaging during your PhD. Some postdoctoral positions offer these types of opportunities and may even be partnering with, for example, a charity, non-governmental or policy organisation as part of the research project. If your long-term career goal is to transition into these kinds of organisations, this type of postdoctoral experience will help you develop your skills, expertise and network relevant to the sector.  


I advise and deliver career workshops on academic mobility – should I stay or should I go? It’s a dilemma for many PhD students and postdoctoral researchers as they progress in their careers. The key question to ask yourself is not whether or not you should move, it’s why you should move. Is it to gain experience, access to particular research facilities or insights from another leader in the field and their research group? Is it because there are more opportunities to undertake your research in another country? Do you really need to move far away for a long time, or could you stay locally and do short visits and build collaborations remotely instead? Applying for your own postdoctoral fellowship, where you can choose your host research group, can give you more control over this decision, so that you are not reliant on the availability of advertised posts. In many cases, academic mobility involves compromises to work:life balance, personal and professional relationships. It’s a decision that is peculiar to each person’s own situation and can be influenced according to their life/career stage.


  • Do your research. Adapt your research project skills towards researching your next postdoctoral position.
  • Start early and familiarise yourself with types of postdoctoral posts, research groups/institutions of interest.
  • Get advice from your current supervisor, postdoctorals and/or collaborators.
  • Do your homework in detail – academic research groups are very visible on the internet via their own webpages, Researchgate, LinkedIn and Twitter. Find out what they are doing, read about their research, investigate who’s in the group now and the destinations of former group members.
  • Consider what you could add to their research that complements or extends their capabilities with potential to create new data and new avenues of research, leading to publications.
  • Network with relevant people during conferences, on social media or even via a direct email to a research group leader (recent research from EMBL shows that the majority of postdocs secured their first post by writing speculatively).
  • Focus on your own current research expertise and figure out how you could improve your profile, e.g. by learning or building on research skills, extending your network, filling gaps in your experience and perfecting your CV and interview technique to present yourself at your best.

If you know the ‘why, what, where and how’ of your career decision to do a particular postdoctoral position (or any job), you will likely be more successful in your applications, more genuine and knowledgeable about your motivations to take up the post, as well as more confident and happy in your new-found role.

Wishing you success!

Career development – it’s personal

As we enter a new year (after a seemingly never-ending January), many of us will be reflecting on our progress so far in 2021. If, like me, you’re poised to renew your yet-to-start New Year Resolutions, maybe it’s a good time to reflect on your intended goals in terms of what’s possible and what’s realistic.

It’s easy to overload ourselves with a long list of aspirations, trying to make up for end-of-year December lethargy and distractions. However, if you look back at your achievements in the previous year, do you really feel disappointed with your accomplishments? These days, just getting through the month can be a success in itself, let alone expecting high-level productivity, whatever that may mean for you personally.

So, how can you set out a realistic personal development plan over the coming months so that you don’t overload yourself? How can you improve on your employability to help you to transition to your next role, even if that’s months or years in the future? We all have gaps in our experience and skills that need to be filled to increase our chances to secure our next job or to win promotion, but we need to balance that with the everyday activities in our current role.

As a careers adviser and educator, I help PhD students and researchers, individually and in groups, to consider the kinds of activities they can do to help increase their employability depending on their career ambitions. Due to research obligations and time limitations, it’s important that personal development is targeted to the right kinds of actions so that they’re fruitful and improve employment prospects.

With this in mind, I recently adapted my PhD Career Choice Indicator (PhDCCI), replacing current skills and interests with future activities that link with career objectives. At its heart, the framework includes the more generic career planning and management essentials, such as self and labour market knowledge, networking and interview technique that are fundamental to making a successful career transition. On the periphery, the six categories distil out the individualised personal development needs targeted to different types of careers.

Based on the original theory of John Holland, the six categories of the PHDCCI – Functional, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Management – are described in my blog: “Decisions, decisions”, and demonstrate how enjoyment of particular skills and interests can provide clues to careers in which many of them are employed. By mapping this concept onto personal career development instead, PhD students and researchers can easily identify for themselves possible actions to assist them in enhancing their employability relevant to their career intentions.

For example, for those who are interested in a career in academia, activities associated with ‘Investigative’ and ‘Enterprising’ are important to assist them to develop their intellectual, collaborative and curiosity-driven capabilities and associated networks, helping them to build productive networks and relationships. On the other hand, those interested in more teaching-orientated academic positions might want to enhance their ‘Social’ teaching/support experiences and seek recognition or further professional qualifications.

Personal development activities such as those associated with ‘Functional’ and ‘Management’, will be of value to those considering a move into industry as a specialist scientist or researcher, where technical/programming skills coupled with proven management/teamworking experiences will be an asset. Furthermore, for those of an ‘Artistic’ disposition, who enjoy science communication, visuals and infographics, building up a portfolio of outreach or writing experiences will afford entry into associated professions such as public engagement and policy careers.

In addition to these types of activities, targeting particular social media and professional organisations helps to focus attention on just a limited number of communication outlets so as to avoid overload. LinkedIn tends to be a catch-all these days, although how you present yourself will differ according to your intentions. More specialist networks exist for most professions and it can be advantageous to connect with them to reach out to current professionals and hear about latest news, policies and even training opportunities and vacancies.

I hope you find the PhDCCI a useful additional tool to help with your career development. For my own part, I have a few training webinars lined up this year to refresh my coaching skills and tomorrow marks the first day of my “Dry February” (moved back from the originally intended Dry January). 😊

Job Entitlement

What is the difference between a researcher, a research analyst, a data analyst, a research engineer, a research scientist and a research associate? This was a question posed by one of the PhD participants of a career workshop I ran this year. It’s a good question, and not an easy one to answer! Recently, a survey conducted on the destinations of postdoctoral researchers was particularly frustrated by the variety of job titles bestowed on this role – I think they identified over 20!

In my former days as a university careers adviser, we had to track the career destinations of our graduates using a standardised list of job titles. This had been a logical strategy up until around the 1990s when new and more elaborate job titles began to emerge, including a wide range of ‘manager’ posts. This made our tracking system more and more obsolete until it was eventually updated with more modern job titles replacing the old ones (such as radio operator and bank clerk). I imagine this operation is still a difficult undertaking, especially when you consider new roles that now exist such as quant analyst, MSL, medical affairs, blogger and influencer. A favourite job title of mine that I came across a few years ago is “Maker” – someone who designs and builds exhibitions for museums and science centres. I also know someone who had a colon in her job title (Programme manager: researchers). If you try out a quick ‘people search’ yourself on LinkedIn, for example, you’ll find a cacophony of roles* yourself.

So how do you distil out the key activities and job requirements of these roles so that you can make sense of them and decide whether they are potential career opportunities suited to your interests and skills? Going back to the original question posed in my workshop, how can you decipher between the role of a research engineer and that of a research analyst, data analyst or researcher? Well, I would say that the answer lies in the question: research – research – research ! Just as you need to be creative in your literature searches during the course  of your scientific research to identify papers of interest and relevance to your own research, so you need to do the same for your job search. A limited keyword search limits the breadth of results you obtain in any research exercise, and it will also stifle your job search strategy.

Returning to the original question concerning job titles, my first quick internet search has revealed the following:

*Interestingly, if you do a search for ‘Scientist’ on LinkedIn, the majority of people who identify as a scientist work in business and industry, whilst those working in academia tend to identify as postdoctoral researchers, postdocs, research fellows, assistant and associate professors. Remember that question, “What do you want to be when you grow up?” As children, we were almost all faced with this question at some time or other. But how many current PhD researchers answered “Postdoc” or “Academic”? I’m guessing none. So, when you title yourself on LinkedIn and other social media, why not consider returning to those childhood dreams and use job titles such as Scientist, Research Scientist, Biomedical Scientist, Ecologist, Plant Scientist, etc. With a good profile, this may help companies, head-hunters and recruitment agencies to find you and who knows where that may lead …

Certainly, I never answered “Careers Adviser” when asked what I wanted to be when I grew up (I don’t know of anyone who did). I wanted to be a vet, but only much later did it occur to me that the underlying impetus for this career aspiration was to help, do good and improve quality of life. Many years later and after an initial Bioscience-related career, I started my transition to where I am now … but that’s another story and job title 😊

Related blog:

Steer your career

Is your PhD driving you crazy? Does it sometimes drive you up the wall and round the bend? Well, don’t worry. Just like learning to drive, you are behind the steering wheel of your PhD driving towards that day when you graduate and receive your certificate. Once that day comes, as with your driving licence, your doctorate will be yours for the rest of your life – no one can take it away from you!

So, when the going gets tough, such as your experiments aren’t working or you’re having a difference of opinion with your supervisor, imagine it’s a difficult driving manoeuvre such as a three-point turn or parallel parking. Keep your eye on the prize and remember these three analogies:     

  1. When you start your driving lessons, it’s hard to manage all the controls, look at the signs, check your speed and watch out for pedestrians. As you progress you get more adept at managing all of these tasks, so that by the time your driving test comes you are ready to go solo. Equally, your PhD is a learning process in which you are progressing over a 3-4-year period to gain enough knowledge, skills and expertise ultimately to go out on the big roads, whether it’s in the direction of an academic or non-academic career. So, don’t be hard on yourself when you’re going through difficult times and don’t be afraid to ask for help. Your PhD is an apprenticeship during which time you can take advantage of all sorts of opportunities to help you build up skills and experiences to navigate your way to becoming a professional researcher.
  2. Like your PhD supervisor, your driving instructor is in overall control of your training and whether you get on with them or not, it’s up to them to help steer you to attain your ultimate goal – to pass your test. I remember my quite elderly and rather bad-tempered driving instructor being hard of hearing, so that any retorts I made to his remonstrations when I made an error fell, quite literally, on deaf ears. It meant I had to endure his criticisms knowing that anything I said in my defence would go unheard. It was a lesson in patience and endurance! On the upside, both my two brothers and I passed first time under his instruction. Whatever your relationship with your supervisor, good or bad, remember we all have our own personalities, strengths and weaknesses and the secret is to find a way to compromise, find common ground and to come to a resolution.
  3. Whatever driving school people choose, it’s likely they have had no prior experience of the company, just as you may not have had any experience of the department, university or research institute in which you are studying your PhD. Every institution has its own culture and work environment, some aspects of which you may enjoy and relish, whilst others may not be so fulfilling. For example, if you’re at a research institute and would prefer to be doing more student teaching and supervision, consider postdoc-ing at a university after your PhD. On the other hand, transfer into business or industry for a more applied, goal-oriented role or, choose something in communications if you’re a more people-centred person.

With your driving licence in hand, you can throw away your L-plate; the world of motorways, highways and autobahns is yours for the taking! Equally, your doctoral certificate will open up a whole variety of career routes to you. So, if your PhD is currently driving you to distraction, bear in mind that once it is completed you will be free to choose your own road to drive down. You can take a map, turn on the satellite navigation and plan your route, or just sit back and let your car(eer) take you wherever you want to go.

Related content: Making career choices

Speculate to Accumulate

Survey conducted by EMBL, posted on Twitter by Dr Rachel Coulthard-Graf

A recent survey of postdoctoral researchers by the EMBL careers department shows that the majority had secured their first postdoc position by writing speculatively to the principal investigator (PI). Writing directly in this way is a career strategy that I and other professionals recommend to PhD students and researchers, rather than waiting for a vacancy to arise. Not only is it flattering for the PI to be targeted, your letter will demonstrate proactivity and self-motivation, as well as your interest in and commitment to this work. It will definitely give you an advantage ….. or will it?

Beware! Speculation is a notoriously risky business. It can reap rewards, but equally it can leave you empty-handed or, worse still, it could go against you. In this blog I’ve listed six tips to help you to ensure your speculative letter accumulates interest rather than being damaging to your career capital.

Academic research is very specialised and is well known to postdoctoral researchers, who are aiming to become more established in the academic community. This makes the process of writing speculatively relatively straightforward because (presumably) they are knowledgeable, have the relevant experience and skills and can easily demonstrate their value to the PI and how they can contribute to the research programme. This is also true for those applying for research fellowships, where approaching a prospective host lab is a necessary part of the application. Even so, as this Nobel Laureate points out, applicants still get it wrong.

For those considering non-academic careers with employers unknown to them, or for which they have no prior experience, writing speculatively is more difficult. Without directly relevant experience, a network or patronage from those within the sector, speculators will have to work harder to formulate their strategy.

So, how can you make sure your speculative letter will work for you. Here are six tips to help you:

1. Make it personal. When writing speculatively, one thing’s for sure, the recipient will not be expecting your letter/message so you will have to work hard to get their attention and interest. First and foremost, this means you must write to a named person – never “Dear Sir/Madam” and definitely not to the Human Resources department. Imagine PIs and other senior managers receive dozens of unsolicited emails every day – if untargeted, unresearched and bland, they will delete them by default. To find potential people to write to on a speculative basis, research the research group, institute, university department or company website. Investigate social media such as LinkedIn, Twitter and Researchgate and use any contacts you have that will help you to find relevant people to whom you can direct your speculative letter.

2. Do your research. You never get a second chance to make a first impression so get it right first time! You have great research skills so put them to good use by investigating the researcher group/ professor/ company/ line manager/their products/publication etc – anything and everything that is relevant to this prospective employer/partner/collaborator. Incorporate the key information into your letter and match it to your experience and expertise. This will ensure that your speculative letter is ‘on message’ and will demonstrate your enthusiasm and commitment to them.

3. Use/build your network. If you’re applying speculatively for a postdoctoral or academic post, you have the advantage of already being in this academic network. Even so, you can still build and develop your network by, for example, identifying mentors who are willing to help and support you such as your current or previous supervisor or collaborators. To build a non-academic network start to make approaches to people in the career sector of interest to you. Find ‘connectors’; graduates/alumni of your current or previous universities who are doing these types of jobs; follow and connect with other employees of these sectors; make comments, re-tweet or share posts of interest; attend meetings and webinars to find speakers or other delegates to connect with. In this way, you will start to transition your way out of academia and into your career sector of interest.

4. Put yourself in their shoes.  The recipient of your speculative letter is not looking out for, or expecting, a communication from you so you need to grab their attention. This means keeping your letter short and on message. No long lead in, no detailed explanations. Get to the point immediately. Spell out the relevance of your experience and expertise to their work. Why you are interested in this role/company/career and what are you bringing that will add value to their organisation to take it forward and even give it an advantage over its competitors. Showing in your letter that you’ve done your ‘homework’ will demonstrate direction and commitment.

5. Be positive and compelling. All of these tips are relevant to writing a standard cover letter for an advertised job, for a speculative letter you just need to exaggerate the normal guidelines: Paragraph 1: Introduce yourself in the context of the aims of the research group/organisation; Paragraph 2: Focus on your experience, skills and expertise and how it matches with those of the research group/organisation; Paragraph 3: Add additional information and refer to key evidence on your CV/on-line profile (with url link); Paragraph 4: Finish on a positive note: For example, “I hope I have convinced you about my potential value to your research aims/service provision/product innovation etc and look forward to hearing your response. If you’d like to discuss this further, I am available for a call/skype at your convenience.” See my example below.

Example speculative letter compiled with Dr Jacopo Marino for a career workshop we co-presented in Zurich in 2016, since edited and updated.

6. Ensure your CV is in tip-top shape! In addition to your excellent speculative letter you should send your CV, which must also be on message and compelling. Going back almost 10 years, I have been blogging intermittently about CVs and covering letters. The information is still applicable today, so I hope you’ll find it useful for your own applications. I’ll continue to add more on the subject of applications in future posts, so watch out for new information and advice coming your way!

Is your CV working?
10 quick CV tips
Strike your PhD from your CV?
When and how to use personal profiles on your CV
CV identity crisis
Top 10 CV mistakes
Have you got your CV covered?

Doctorate vs Corporate

Top tip no. 6: Finding a work:life balance

With the majority of PhD students taking up careers outside of academia, how does life change when you move out of the university environment and into the corporate world? In this month’s blog I’m pleased to be hosting a guest blog by Caroline Wood, who secured her science policy post after graduating from the University of Sheffield just under a year ago. Here, she describes some observations she’s made during her first role on how the corporate world compares to life as a PhD student, including lessons learned and some useful top tips.   

Sorry – what is it that you do?

Within Academia, the roles are fairly straightforward: PhD student, post-doc, technician, lecturer and professor covers most people. However, in the corporate world I struggled to make sense of how the various teams fitted together and what everybody actually did. Even when I tried looking up people’s profiles on LinkedIn, their job titles were often meaningless to me. I wish now that I had asked my new colleagues to explain what they did on a day-to-day basis when we were first introduced, before it became too embarrassing to ask.

Top tip 1: When meeting new colleagues for the first time, it can be more informative to ask what their key activities and responsibilities are, rather than their job title.


I lost count of the number of ‘policy documents’ I read during my induction. There was an official document for everything: claiming expenses, responsible travel, GDPR, not to mention continuous cybersecurity and health & safety training. Of course, my PhD also involved training modules, but these were always directly relevant to my research: how to dispense liquid nitrogen safely for tissue sampling; the correct bin for radioactive waste, and so on. Although I could understand the necessity for corporate transparency and accountability, I knew that most of them would never be relevant to my work.

Top tip 2: Induction can seem like a never-ending marathon at times! If your organisation doesn’t provide an induction checklist, draw one up with your line manager so you can be sure that everything gets done as efficiently as possible.

Meetings galore

Throughout my PhD, I constantly struggled to pin down my super-busy supervisors for meetings to discuss my research. In stark contrast, the corporate world fills your calendar with meetings: team meetings, directorate meetings, all-staff updates, catch-ups with my line manager, etc. Once the coronavirus lockdown started and remote working became the norm, I really began to feel the effects of ‘Zoom fatigue’. When these on-line meetings lasted 90 minutes+ I, like many others, would struggle to focus, especially when issues of no relevance to my work were being discussed, meaning that I had nothing to contribute.

Top tip 3: Always go into a meeting with a clear aim of what you want to achieve, even if it is simply staying awake 😊 If the meeting isn’t directly relevant to your role, you can still use it to look out for colleagues with similar interests or overlapping responsibilities.

Creating creative opportunities

I’ve always loved coming up with new ideas and trying new approaches. During my PhD all I needed to do was get the go-ahead from my supervisor. This freedom to make decisions is more inhibited in the corporate world, where everything in the company is connected and so requires a more structured decision-making process. It felt as though all my suggestions had to be escalated through a chain of people until they reached someone with the power to make a decision. Consequently, many of my ideas simply disappeared into a void.

Top tip 4: Try to find out who are the key gatekeepers – the people who have the ability to introduce change – and approach them with your ideas. If your creative suggestions meet hesitation, aim to channel your enthusiasm into areas outside work instead, such as voluntary and freelance work.

Finding friends

It can be more challenging to meet people without the organised societies, interest groups and journal clubs that the academic world typically provides. Nevertheless, with a little detective work and initiative, I soon found people with common interests. Through the staff intranet, I found groups for arts & crafts, sustainability issues, climate change activism and a host of sports societies. Keen to improve my foreign language skills, I put up posters inviting people to an informal French meet-up and soon a group of us were convening every Wednesday to chat in French during our lunch break.

Top tip 5: Make the most of the intranet, staff forums and even coffee-break chat to find groups to join. But don’t be afraid to start something new if something doesn’t already exist!

Finding a work:life balance

One aspect that did improve hugely in my corporate role was my work-life balance. During my PhD, most of my fellow students frequently worked past 7pm, and I often had to go in at weekends to water my plants or use equipment that was usually booked and unavailable during the week. Now, my colleagues were actually ‘clocking off’ at sensible times and I discovered the joy of bank holidays and paid leave! What’s more, I could relax and enjoy this time, rather than spending it reading a backlog of new papers or planning my next experiments. Even if I wanted to work at weekends, it was seen as a sign that I was struggling to fulfil my core duties, rather than a show of dedication. This gave me more time to recharge my batteries, and I gradually lost that ‘burn-out’ feeling that was so prevalent during my research days.

Top tip 6: Find out in advance when public holidays and privilege days are so you can make the most of your leave and plan some extended weekends away. I always seemed to find out at the last minute when it was too late to organise anything!

Since writing this blog, Caroline has taken up a new role in Science Communication at the University of Oxford.

Work kind

Walking around a market in France last week, my eye was caught by an orange T-shirt being worn by one of the stall holders. Its message read, “In a world where you can be anything, be kind”. How true I thought, as my mind was drawn back to a feedback comment relating to a recent webinar I had delivered with my co-host (@verdantLearn), saying, “Overall, it was a wonderful webinar/workshop. I thoroughly enjoyed it. Sarah and Lucy were very kind and helpful.”

Mention of kindness in my evaluations is unusual; participants generally focus on aspects of the workshop content judging whether they were relevant, useful, effective, and, of course, helpful in relation to their career planning. However, when I reflect on this comment, I realise that kindness is a rare commodity in a generally quite harsh and competitive academic culture, and therefore the more greatly appreciated. Being kind indicates compassion and empathy for others. It makes you feel good for other people when you are kind, as well as making you feel good about yourself. Moreover, kindness is a win-win situation and brings out the best in people.

In this month’s blog I thought I’d highlight some published words on kindness and its associated benefits related to careers, work and society:

Should we steer clear of the winner-takes-all approach in academia?

In this Nature article (16/01/2018), Kendal Powell reports on seven interviews conducted with scientists, following their first “Kindness in Science” workshop, held in New Zealand. Tammy Steeves, a conservation geneticist and leader of the Kindness in Science movement, cites “harnessing the power of the collective” as being at the heart of a new ethos in academic conduct, ending the interview by saying: “I believe that kindness in science will lead to better science outcomes. With more scientists working in a truly inclusive way, we will achieve more.”

Meanwhile, Emily Bernhardt, an ecologist professor at Duke University and author of an essay on kindness in science, calls for criticism to be toned down. Science is innately critical and involves much critical thinking, however at the personal level it can be highly demoralising and damaging. “Senior people should be calling out bad behaviour: “I think that’s a little over the top or unkind.””, she says.

The possibility of being kind at work

This LinkedIn article by Karin Lindner is a more general account of the importance of being kind at work, even when others are not so generous themselves. Point 1 in her long list of ways to be kind first tells us to be kind to ourselves; something I had to remember when I started to tell myself off for missing the deadline for my July blog (due to being distracted by the aforementioned holiday in France!). None of us is perfect, nor are those around us – we just have to do the best we can and keep things in perspective. Lindner ends her article by highlighting some of the fringe benefits of kindness: increased self-worth, improved self confidence and a more positive outlook. Who wouldn’t want those?

Human Kind : A hopeful History

This revelatory book by prominent thinker, Rutger Bregman, published by Bloomsbury in May 2020, has received glowing reviews from international press and publishers – and for good reason. Bregman puts forward the argument, with plenty of historical examples, that us humans, rather than being innately selfish and governed by self-interest, as we are taught to believe, actually are innately good, trusting and cooperative (not competitive). He proposes that in order to have a truly democratic society, we must first re-think the human condition and consider ourselves to be kind and altruistic.   


#kindness has started to appear more often on social media in relation to academia, perhaps partly as a result of a report published by Wellcome in January 2020 on the culture of research entitled, What researchers think about the culture they work in. Key findings include the following results: “78% of researchers think that high levels of competition have created unkind and aggressive conditions.”; “Nearly two-thirds of researchers (61%) have witnessed bullying or harassment, and 43% have experienced it themselves.”

@AcademicKindness is a Twitter profile created as far back as March 2014, which links to a blog ( where researchers can post experiences of unsolicited acts of kindness and generosity. Quoting from an interview by InsideHigherEd. com, its owner Rabia Gregory, associate professor at the University of Missouri, said, “I hope more academics realise that if you care about your profession and want it to continue after you retire, you really do need to be willing to mentor, to offer constructive feedback, to help younger scholars develop networks, to write recommendation letters. Otherwise how will there ever be a new generation of scholars?”

Keep calm and career on

My final example is a previous blog from, which I wrote just before I set up on my own as an academic career consultant in August 2017. It focuses on being positive in the face of adversity and includes the words of American writer, Keith M. Keith, “If you are kind, people may accuse you of selfish, ulterior motives; Be kind anyway….The good you do today, people will often forget tomorrow; Do good anyway. Give the world the best you have, and it may never be enough; Give the world the best you’ve got anyway.”

I’m very happy to have been able to inject some kindness into the world of academia over the past three years, by helping researchers and students with their careers. Perhaps I’ve met some of you during that time, or maybe our paths will cross in the future… In the meantime, keep calm and work kind 🙂

Do a ‘Selfie’ to improve your Self

How often do you take selfies whilst on holiday and out with friends? We are constantly portraying ourselves from the outside, but how often do we look beyond what is on the surface and think about our inner selves? This week I ran a webinar on personal effectiveness and how we can adapt to, and harness, situations and events (bad and good) to our advantage.

At the core of personal effectiveness is a whole range of self attributes and attitudes that can help to empower you in your personal and professional lives. Here, are three “selfies” to get you started:

“You can’t get away from yourself by moving from one place to another.”, Ernest Hemingway

How well do you know yourself? What are your greatest strengths and how do you make use of them in your personal and work life? Where do your weaknesses and blind spots lie and how have you tried to off-set them? What skills and abilities would you like to use most in your future career and in which type of organisation? How do you like to interact with others and what are your preferred ways of working?

Learning about yourself is not an easy process – sometimes we are less aware of ourselves than those around us, who know us well. You can improve your self-awareness through professional career coaching, attending courses, engaging with meditation and mindfulness, completing questionnaires, speaking with friends and colleagues or doing a personal audit of your own using a reflective log, for example. When you’re applying for jobs, you’ll need to explain why you are interested in a particular role and organisation when you attend interviews, and some companies may ask you to undertake a psychometric assessment. For more information on self-awareness see my previous blog: Mind your career

“Mastering others is strength; mastering oneself is true power.”, Lao Tsu.

It’s hard to separate self-awareness from self-leadership, which also incorporates self-management, time management, emotional intelligence, professionalism, integrity and personal growth. It’s a lot to think about, but fundamentally it requires you to be mindful about the way you behave: Treat others with respect; keep your word; be proactive and take responsibility for your actions; understand and manage your emotions; mentor and empower those less experienced than yourself; show empathy and understanding; be honest and act with integrity; be productive with your time and learn to negotiate with others to reach mutually beneficial decisions. See my previous blog for more information: Don’t plead for your career, take the lead

“Income seldom exceeds personal development.”, Jim Rohn

It was back in 1976 that Douglas T. Hall first introduced the concept of the “Protean career”- “a career orientation in which the person, not the organization, is in charge, where the person’s core values are driving career decisions, and where the main success criteria are subjective.” This means being self-reliant, directing your own career and taking responsibility for your career decisions. The graph opposite reveals the results of a survey in which research group leaders (PIs) indicated the relative importance of areas of their role, as well as their confidence in carrying them through. Unsurprisingly, career development was at the lower end of their priorities – this is not surprising since they have a lot to think about and have little knowledge of non-academic careers.

You can take control of your career by identifying areas for your own personal and professional development. You can ask for support from career professionals such as myself or careers advisers that reside in your own institution. Career workshops, conferences, job fairs and other events help you to consider other career areas, put you in contact with professionals in your fields of interest and help you to reflect on your strengths, skills, interests and personality. Which, means increasing your self-awareness … bringing us full circle.

For more information on career development use my website – I write a new blog each month and also have lots of resources to help you with your career planning and development. Follow me on social media and use LinkedIn, Twitter, Researchgate and other on-line platforms to meet other people and find out about news and information that could help you to grow your career.

The learning never stops and neither should you 😊

Net Working to Net a Job

Applying for advertised posts is a well-known and well-used strategy for securing a job and may be an approach that has served you well previously. However, if you rely solely on publicised vacancies as you move forward in your career, you are very likely limiting your exposure to job opportunities. Positions are not always advertised, are invariably hidden from general view or haven’t yet been created.

As Robert Alford rightly says in his quote above, you need to prepare well before the end of your PhD or contract so that you are armed with strategic information, contacts and the tools to make a successful transition. Networking is a key tactic when exploring your options; just as you peruse the literature and investigate the research of other labs in your pursuit of new ideas and research avenues, so you need to do the same in your job search.

Using the internet to research the job market, people and companies can yield some very interesting results and help pave the way to your next position, whether within or outside of academia. Here are five ideas for you to try out:

  1. To expand your knowledge of the job market, search company employees to investigate their range of job titles. For example, I have made a list below from a well-known pharma company by searching people on LinkedIn that work for the company:

I must admit, I’m not sure what some of the job titles mean or what their roles entail, but you can investigate these further by researching the profiles and backgrounds of those in these positions. If it turns out you’re keen to pursue this career, make contact with some of those in this role. If you’d prefer to work for a smaller company (SME) look for people working in your area of interest, note who are their employers, and investigate these companies further on social media or by visiting their websites.

2. Once you’ve established the type of post(s) of interest to you, instead of ‘cold calling’ people, you can try to find people with whom you have some commonality. They are more likely to respond positively to you. One method you can use is to investigate alumni or previous employees from your current or former university or research institute, who are working in this role. For example, you can do a very easy search using the ‘alumni’ button on university profiles on LinkedIn and then doing a keyword search. Once you have identified one or more relevant people, you can introduce yourself as someone who also attended or worked at the same institution.

3. Many companies have a presence on Twitter nowadays, broadcasting information about their latest news and developments, as well as responding to others within their circle of interest and influence. Information such as this is invaluable when researching potential future employers and, furthermore, you can see who is following them – very likely many of their employees. They, in turn, will be following others based in associated industries, relaying their news and interests, and so on. This research may well lead you to interesting places and to new and surprising discoveries, so that, just as with your scientific research, you come across unexpected information (e.g. courses, jobs, contacts, funding) previously hidden to you.

4. For those of you aiming for a career in academia, use specialist forums and communities that are associated with your research interests. Researchgate is one of the best platforms for academics to display their research profile and publications. Asking and answering questions can spotlight you and bring you to the attention of others. Discussion lists and forums provide news related to your interests and are populated with people who could be potential collaborators or even future colleagues and employers.

5. Conferences are one of the best ways to network in academia, however with many of them cancelled or postponed in these challenging times of lockdown and social distancing, there are fewer opportunities to engage face-to-face. On the upside, many conferences are now being offered on-line as a series of webinars in place of in-person events. For some people this can actually make them a more viable and accessible prospect, with expenses such as travel and accommodation reduced to zero and registration offered at a much lower rate. Take advantage of these on-line gatherings, not only to hear from speakers, but to connect with participants by email, LinkedIn, Twitter, etc., as you would do if you met someone interesting at a regular conference.

I hope these five ideas have given you a flavour of how to make the Net work for you and wish you success as you network your way to your next job!

Related content: Five PhD Networking Strategies
Hashtag your way to a job

The why, how and whom of your career

In these turbulent times of ‘Lockdown’ it is becoming clear that the success, and even the very existence, of employers such as small businesses and large organisations, educational establishments and charities is precarious. The interconnectedness of the employment sector is evident, relying as it does on a constant flow of customers, services and money – it’s what makes the world go around.

A sudden and immediate halt to all of this, as happened in March, with no clear ending in sight, has thrown this delicate balance into disarray within a matter of weeks. Similarly, the closure of universities has put staff and students’ work on hold, with additional possible future consequences, such as their very economic viability and financial sustainability1,2,3.

So, where does this leave PhD students and postdoctoral researchers? You will all be in various stages of your PhD and research work and affected in vastly different ways depending on, amongst other things, the nature of your research project and your lockdown circumstances. You may also be concerned about your future career and what opportunities will be available to you in the short- and longer-term. Unlike these issues (and many others), over which you have little or no influence, personal qualities such as self-reliance and self-understanding, are under your own control and can help you to stay positive in the face of adversity. They can empower you to be more resourceful and influence how you manage yourself under various conditions – good and bad, certain and uncertain. In times of great stress and uncertainty, they can be your best friends.

Let me introduce you to the intelligent career. Based on career theories proposed by a well-known figure in the careers field, M.B. Arthur4 and his collaborators, in an intelligent career world “having personal goals and choosing employment that helps us to fulfil them is fundamental to all of us. It is also the key to long-term employability…”. In the context of what Arthur terms the boundaryless career (i.e. not bounded or tied to a single organisation), individuals who pay attention to  the three key ‘ways of knowing’ – knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom – are likely to be more self-reliant and fulfilled in their work.

Knowing-why refers to the personal drivers that are central to our motivation to do the work we do, our values, personality, temperament and preferred work:life balance. So, for example, if you reflect on what it is that excites and enthuses you and that gives meaning to your current work or PhD project, this can help you to understand what types of work will most inspire and motivate you in the future. Think about how you can carry these motivators forward into your next job. Perhaps you prefer to stay within the academic research field, maybe you want a specialised functional role, more contact with people, something more closely associated with helping society or you see yourself managing multiple projects. See related blog.

Knowing-how refers to the skills and expertise (e.g. technical, professional, interpersonal) you have acquired during your current and previous roles, directly related to, or indirectly associated with, your research. The types of skills you enjoy and prefer to use should complement your current career. Which ones you choose to build on will be determined by your career ambitions, so that they contribute towards enhancing your employability for future positions of interest to you. There are many routes into different career sectors, so use your personal development time productively. For example, during this period of self-isolation more on-line courses seem to have become available, so see if you can find one that suits your interests. See related blog.

Knowing whom refers to those with whom you have a relationship. This could be your current and former co-workers, PhD student colleagues, alumni, collaborators, other professionals, friends, family, etc. Building and expanding your ‘social capital’ is not about using people, it’s a two-way process of getting to know new people who are interested and engaged in activities that are of interest to you. Those who show interest in others, and who are well-prepared and professional, are usually well-received by those more established. As an ‘up-and-coming’ enthusiast, you may even be courted as a potential new employee or collaborator. On-line networking can be fruitful, enabling you to move into a community and even to assist with your transition to your next post, especially outside of academia. See related blog.

The intelligent career proposes that ‘knowing why, knowing how and knowing whom’ are inter-related and influence the investment that we put into our careers. Arthur concludes in one of his co-authored papers, “The rewards we look for [in our careers] may well be personal, intrinsic rewards, rather than extrinsic ones like status or money. The important point is to be empowered to have a choice in the kind of work we take, the careers we pursue, and the purposes our careers serve.”

  4. See for example,