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Five PhD networking strategies

“It’s not what you know, it’s who you know”. You’ve probably heard this saying before – it’s well-known, well-worn advice that has stood the test of time. Espoused by colleagues, senior staff, coaches and mentors all over the world, it’s a way of saying “Get out there and network!”

Let me explain the value of networking with a few examples: If you’re having trouble with your experimental set-up and have no-one to help you, reaching out to a specialist on-line community can sometimes resolve the problem, as well as revealing your interests; collaborating with diverse research groups around the world can extend your knowledge and experience and even increase your employment prospects; applying for jobs is an important part of career planning, but connecting with people within your chosen career sector or organisation can give you a distinct advantage; being good at what you do and achieving results is still important, but its impact is accentuated when you’ve got people to tell. Unlike education where you can attain an A-grade on your own, work is people-orientated and so building relationships is an essential element to achieve results for both your projects and for yourself.

In my recent paper, “Harnessing the power of communities: career networking for bioscience PhD students and postdoctoral researchers”, published in FEMS Microbiology Letters, I list five ways you can network to achieve career success. You should be able to access it if your university has a subscription but if not, here’s a summary:

Academic-related networks
As a PhD student or postdoctoral researcher, you are likely based in an academic work environment with access to all kinds of researchers within your own institution and others all around the world. You can use this network to help enhance your academic career prospects by making contact with other research groups and individuals whose knowledge, skills and related networks will help you to expand your own horizons. For those wishing to remain in an academic work environment but to move out of research, a variety of technical, administrative and educational staff, based in other departments, can offer potential opportunities for you to gain experience or vacancy insights to help you transfer into other roles.

Internships and work experience
Voluntary or paid work experience is equally valuable, not only to extend your experience and try out other types of work, but to put you in contact with people working in new communities. Even if it’s a one-off event, a day or a week’s experience, you will be spending time with professionals with whom you can ask questions, make contacts and demonstrate your enthusiasm and commitment to this new type of role. Internships can be hard to access as a postdoctoral researcher, but PhD students may be more able to step away from the bench for a few months. Negotiating with your supervisor is crucial in this process, showing them how you will make up the time and/or continue to commit to the research project.

Transient networks
Attending conferences, seminars and meetings is a common activity in the academic world, so take full advantage of these opportunities to meet new people and learn new knowledge. Prepare and plan for longer, larger events and challenge yourself to meet at least two or three new useful contacts with whom you have the potential to work with in the future. Business cards are becoming more common amongst the academic community nowadays and it’s a great way to exchange personal information and stay in touch afterwards. Remember, you are as useful and interesting to them as they are to you so don’t think of it as ‘using people’.

On-line networks
Social media has democratised networking to a great extent making people far more accessible than before. You can communicate and link with a whole range of people, exchange information and learn about opportunities. I suggest Researchgate for those interested in an academic career, LinkedIn for industry/commercial sector and Twitter for everyone and anyone to learn about research/general knowledge, jobs, conferences, opinions and facts.

Professional associations and organisations
Clubs have always been a great way for people with similar interests to join together, e.g. stamp collectors, vintage car enthusiasts, gardening gurus etc. If your interest is a particular academic discipline, for example biochemistry, microbiology, plant science, endocriniology, neuroscience, genetics, ecology (and practically any subject you can think of), joining a learned society can bring you into contact with like-minded people. Not only that, many of them offer a huge number of benefits such as discounted registration to conferences, travel grants of up to £500, committee membership, regular newsletters, awards, competitions and mentoring.

You may recognise some of these networking strategies and be using them already, but I hope I’ve given you a few more ideas.

Related blogs:

10 ways to find your next job

Keep your acquaintances close



Medical Science Liaison (MSL) Role – investigative communicator!

The number of Medical Science Liaison (MSL) vacancies is on the rise. As more and more drugs come to market, pharma companies are rapidly increasing the number of MSLs they employ. So could this be a suitable and attractive career choice for you? If you like reading and talking about science read on as former postdoc Martijn Bijker, founder/director of ‘fromSCIENCE to PHARMA’ explains the role of an MSL:

“Like many scientists, I enjoy reading and discussing new cool science with my fellow colleagues. However, when I was a postdoc I found that reading and talking about science was generally overwhelmed by doing day-to-day experiments. Working for hours on end behind a flow cytometry machine in a dark place, I frequently found myself feeling quite lonely (and bored). The fun part of “doing” science was being eroded and so after 3.5 years of postdocing, I decided to move into a Medical Science Liaison (MSL) role in the pharmaceutical industry at Abbott. And so began a new career for me that ticked all the boxes on the science menu that I had missed during my postdoc.”

Companies hire MSLs to help bring innovative new drugs to market; they are the scientific and clinical disease and drug experts working within the medical (affairs) department of a pharmaceutical or biotech company. This includes knowing how the drug works – its mode of action (MOA), questioning the disease and patient profiles, how to prevent or treat an adverse event or questioning the clinical trials from your own and competitor companies. These so-called pipeline molecules are tested in healthy individuals and/or in actual patients with the hope that these new drugs will do better than the current standard of care/best supportive care.

MSLs work at the interface between internal stakeholders in the pharma company and external stakeholders in the field – called Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs). KOLs, broadly defined as leaders in their field, can be heads of departments at teaching hospitals, heads of pharmacies, professors of medicine, the CEO of a patient organisation, physicians involved in pharmaceutical clinical trials and sometimes clinical scientists themselves. Having discussions with KOLs – often referring to clinical papers and conference information – helps MSLs to gain relevant insights, allowing internal stakeholders to devise the best strategy to make a treatment a clinical success for the patient, the treating doctor and the company.

As an MSL you have to be up-to-date on the latest literature and be a good communicator, since you are working with the most influential stakeholders in the country. Having a pharmacy or scientific degree and strong personal and communication skills is essential to breaking into the MSL role. Because of the highly scientific and clinical nature of the MSL job without you having to directly sell anything, it has become a very popular career choice for pharmacists/MSc/PhDs/postdocs who enjoy talking science for a (very well paid) living.

“The combination of being a disease expert, reading clinical papers, discussing science with top clinicians in the field, having autonomy in your role and being able to travel a bit (across the globe to international conferences) was for me the ideal science job outside academia, while at the same time being able to influence how patients are being treated, and will be treated in the future, with the most innovative drugs on the market.”

To find out more about this up-and-coming career and how to break into it visit Martijn’s training company website and join their free MSL webinar on “How to become an MSL without industry experience” by signing up at


Employable you!

Two recent blogs, published in InsideHigherEd and Nature, got me thinking about how advantageous it can be to have a PhD when looking for a job – but you need to think beyond your qualification to be employable.

The two articles focus on the employability of PhD-qualified graduates and diversity of roles to which they can aspire. Career possibilities range from directly relevant roles within academia, for which a PhD is a requisite qualification, through to those where a PhD is not required at all, such as management, accountancy and finance.  For all of these roles, associated experience, skills and personal qualities are the key to entering the profession – and I think this might be where many PhD graduates fall down: unlike applying for a PhD where educational success is the main factor required to secure the post (for example, in the UK you need at least a 2.i or 1st class degree and even a master’s to be considered), most employers look beyond qualifications when assessing candidates for particular roles within their organisations. Even for a first postdoctoral position you need to demonstrate your functional skills such as lab techniques, computing expertise, methodologies, as well as publishing and funding successes when making your application. However, as you progress in your career “employable you” needs to think more strategically.

Look at your professor/group leader and consider his/her responsibilities: Are they doing functional work in the lab? Very probably not. They are horizon scanning for new research ideas and avenues to investigate, writing research grants to test hypotheses, recruiting and mentoring postdocs and PhD students, contributing to departmental activities, teaching, writing papers, reviewing papers, handling rejections, setting up new collaborations, etc. So, for those aspiring to an academic career beyond the position of the functional postdoc, you can see that acquiring an independent fellowship or two will be advantageous, gaining an international reputation, publishing papers and connecting with other research groups, etc will be strategically important to enhance the likelihood of being employed as a permanent academic. If you think you’d like to move out of academia, you will need to enhance other experiences and skills to place yourself in an equally strong position to make a successful transition into your chosen career sector.

As pointed out in Polk and Wood’s blog, spending your time during your PhD or postdoc on extra-curricular activities such as taking relevant courses, doing voluntary work or networking will help you to re-direct your career into one where a PhD is not essential, and will provide evidence of your potential value as a new employee in the organisation. Many employers like PhD-qualified scientists who have much-needed technical skills, are not afraid of technology, are can-do problem solvers, numerate and who think objectively and creatively. For some posts, relevant experience may be needed, blocking your eligibility to apply. In these cases, it’s worth trying to secure an internship or network with someone in the profession to gain insights and access to their community. However, sometimes, transferable skills can be enough to demonstrate your suitability. For example, if you were involved in project managing or marketing events during your PhD, if you took part in other activities where your experiences related to your new non-academic role, these will provide evidence that you have the aptitude to use and develop them in your new non-academic role.

Finally, to show the employer just how employable you are, don’t forget to target the content of your CV and covering letter to the organisation and job specification!


Career stories – what’s yours?

A ladder, a journey, a winding path, stepping stones, a meandering river, a roller coaster ride …. These are all typical metaphors that people often use to describe their careers. The analogies and imagery they use can be quite revealing, indicating positive or negative experiences, ups and downs, progression and stasis. As biologists, you may even use scientific associations such as metamorphosis, branching, differentiation or ‘survival of the fittest’.

Career stories or narratives of PhD graduates and former postdocs who have forged successful careers can sometimes help those looking for inspiration with their own career planning. Many universities and research institutions invite alumni or other external visitors to give talks on their careers, highlighting the ups and downs, key moments, tips and advice for entering their profession. These in-person appearances are really valuable if you are looking for ideas and information, and can also be an invaluable networking opportunity. The only ‘health warning’ I would attach to these individual accounts is that they are just that: personal and unique to that individual. For many people, networking and unique chance meetings play a major role in their career story, so it’s best to take a broader perspective of their career experiences and think of them in a wider context. For example, if they say they got into their profession through a particular contact, obviously you’re not going to be able to make use of the same contact but, in the wider context, it shows that you will need to network, make connections and be proactive to generate similar opportunities.

Autobiographical reflections are powerful when thinking about your own career. They offer clues to your personal interests, passions, motivations and values, factors which are fundamental when making career choices (even if you’re not consciously aware of them). Imagine that you have been invited to tell your story to those aspiring to your career. What will you say? What will you highlight? What tips and advice will you give? Even though most PhD students and researchers would argue that their experiences are very similar, your personal narratives will be distinct and unique. Your personality, background, personal situation, values, interests and a variety of other aspects set you apart from each other. For a workshop I ran last year, I asked the participants to bring in an image or object which represented their career: everyone brought something very personal to them; some were literal, encapsulating their everyday experiences, whilst others were more obtuse and conceptual. Each required an accompanying narrative so that their peers could understand its meaning. The image I have used to accompany this blog of one of my bookcases represents my career – always travelling around delivering workshops in different countries (and I’m a bit messy too).

Consider your career: [Preferably in a quiet space away from your working area]. Which metaphor would you use to describe your career? What object or image best describes it? Once you have done this, think about why you have selected these analogies and what they tell you about yourself and your experiences. Are you happy with your current situation? What’s good in your life right now? What’s not so good? What do you want to do more of? How can you improve your situation? How would you like to move forward? Where do you want to go next? The answers to these questions, and others which may be evoked through this self-reflective exercise, may help to inform your decisions about your next career move.

Here is a link to on-line PhD career stories

How to be a STAR performer

How good are you at answering interview questions? Are you confident that you’re performing at your best? How well do you express yourself? Are you able to convince interviewers how well suited you are to the job over and above other interview candidates?

It’s always excellent news to find out you’ve been called for interview, but your next challenge is to make sure you perform well to get the job offer you’re looking for. Nowadays, employers use a number of different interview formats including phone ‘screener’ interviews, on-line video interviews and more conventional panel interviews. Whichever type of interview it is, you will need to use coherent and convincing language to engage and interest the interviewer. Humans respond well to stories (the derivation of the word “history” is “his story”); it is your story-telling skills which will help you to bring your content to life and capture the attention of your interviewer listeners.

This is where the STAR technique comes in. An abbreviation of SITUATION – TASK – ACTIVITY – RESULT, this handy acronym can help to guide you to tell mini-stories during your interview, adding colour and life to your experiences. The idea is to set the scene for a situation when you had to put into practice a certain skill or strength to achieve a particular outcome.

For example, if you are asked a question about your problem-solving skills, think of a project you have been involved with (SITUATION). What problem were you trying to solve? (It could be technically, people, ideas, etc. orientated) (TASK). What exactly did you do, which skills and experiences did you draw upon in order to solve the problem? (ACTION). What was the result of your action, what impact did it have – you can use quantities to make it even more interesting (RESULT).

Another example to demonstrate working in a team: You may have taken part in organising a departmental event (SITUATION). What were you organising? (TASK). What was your role? What part did you play? (ACTION). What was the outcome? (RESULT).

The interviewer(s) may then go on to ask you questions around your STAR story such as what kinds of difficulties did you encounter, how could you have done things differently, what did you learn from the experience, etc. If you can predict from the job description/role, the types of skills and competencies the interviewers are likely to be interested in hearing about to help convince themselves of your suitability, you can prepare the examples ahead of your interview so you can talk about them succinctly and coherently. Beware of spending too much time on describing the situation; this is usually the least important part of the STAR story. Your actions form the most important part of the story, demonstrating the way you think things through, tackle tasks and interact with others.

Bear in mind that even when you are asked questions about how you envisage yourself carrying out certain duties in the future as part of your potential new role, e.g. setting up a lab, applying for grants, thinking innovatively or communicating to different audiences, you can still refer to past experiences and examples using the STAR technique. Refer to a past or current situation to demonstrate how you have already done these types of activities in a different setting and how your skills can be transferred into future responsibilities. Whatever gaps you have in your skill-set can form the basis of continuing professional development opportunities in your new role.


Gifts Differing

18th December 2017: Christmas is coming and, at times like this, many of us are looking forward to exchanging gifts. We will have been out shopping for suitable presents for our loved ones and angsting over what will suit them in terms of the perfect gift – something practical, maybe an ‘experience’, perhaps something quirky, edible or perfumed.

As much as we differ in our preferences for gifts, so we differ in our personal gifts; that is, our talents and what we are good at. Qualifications such as a PhD are both an asset and an obstacle when it comes to career decisions. Whilst you want to feel that your PhD is giving you an advantage, it can also act as a disadvantage and even an obstacle to free-thinking about your career possibilities. It can get in the way of considering your gifts, talents and skills, the essence of ‘you’ and what you feel passionate about. Sure, you may be someone for whom research is your ‘calling’, but for others it may be science communication, science policy, science business or perhaps a non-science career that “floats your boat”.

For me, it became clear very early on in my scientific career that practical, functional science was the antithesis of my ‘gift’ and that communication and empathy, intuition and people were where my talents lay. Hence, I’m now a PhD careers adviser with a penchant for science communication!  So what about you? What are your gifts? Cast your mind back and remember what your career ambitions were when you were younger. Weave this into your career decision making, think more widely about your essential skills, interests, personality and values. The Science Council identified 10 types of scientist which will guide you in your reflection and my PhD Career Choice Indicator may also help you to think beyond your qualification, not forgetting other resources such as personality assessment tools and books such as ‘Gifts Differing’.  

Have a great Christmas break and all best wishes for 2018!

10 blogs to help you on your way

“Be careful what you wish for”, so the saying goes, but sometimes “Be careful what you don’t wish for” is more wistful advice. Recently, Nature published the results of their survey of PhD students and it wasn’t surprising to see that the no. 1 wish was to have a career in ‘Academia’ (52%), with ‘Industry’ coming in second at 22% and other sectors figuring very marginally.

A career in academia has long been the favoured career of PhD students, despite the diminished chances of securing a permanent position, let alone a professorship. Many of those who sense that they may not achieve academic success opt for ‘industry’ instead – in whatever sense that may be. In the Nature survey, ‘Industry’ in this instance is defined as ‘research in industry’, but there are many other roles requiring a PhD in this sector of small, large and wide-ranging employers, e.g. pharamacovigilence, medicine and medical affairs, clinical operations, production operations, quality assurance, regulatory affairs, licensing, publications management, medical science liaison, data science management, marketing and sales, market access, consultancy.

Closer examination of the survey’s raw data reveals how well the participating PhD students were familiar with the career landscape, what was their knowledge of non-academic employers who would appreciate their skills, as well as being able to recognise their strengths and what they have to offer the non-academic world: all scored low in the survey. This may be a classic ‘cause’ and ‘effect’ situation – with no knowledge or experience of external opportunities, graduate students may be more inclined to choose ‘research in industry’ as it’s the most closely aligned to what they are currently doing.

It’s possible that you took part in this survey, or that this may be the kind of situation you find yourself in. The survey indicated that most of the students chose to do a PhD because of the intellectual challenge, stimulating work environment and creativity. It’s questionable whether over 50% make the initial decision because they hanker after a career as an academic, rather their career aspirations may become more allied to doing research and remaining in a stimulating work environment as they progress in their early career; the work focus of a PI is very different to that of a PhD student or postdoc, with the majority spending much of their time writing grants and papers, teaching and doing administration, not to mention dealing with intense competition. Of course, there are plenty of positive aspects, but you need to be passionate and strategic – as well as lucky – to attain tenure and to have the stamina to forge a life-long career in academia these days.

Moving out of academia into the wider world of work offers a cacophony of career options, maybe too many! PhD graduates and postdoctoral researchers can be overwhelmed with choice, but don’t know anything about these jobs or where to look for them, let alone whether they would be suited to them and vice versa. In the survey, having access to information about the job market and career guidance were both cited as being lacking along with other barriers to transitioning out of academia.

The majority of those surveyed use the internet to locate opportunities and research careers so with that in mind, here are ten of my career-related blogs to help you to wish for something else other than academia:

  1. Get to know the job market
  2. Use specialised job sites
  3. Increase your self awareness
  4. Recognise your skills
  5. Link your skills and interests with possible types of careers
  6. Get LinkedIn
  7. Adapt your CV to the job
  8. Make your own luck
  9. Investigate non-academic careers in more detail (e.g. career stories)
  10. Get career support





Academic mobility

Here I am, on the road (in the air) again, delivering two workshops in Barcelona before flying off to Nice to do the same. Being mobile is a necessary part of my work, since it’s easier for me to run courses for PhD students and postdocs in their own institutes and universities than for them to have to come to me. Two weeks ago I was in Switzerland and in two weeks’ time I shall be in Vienna. My type of mobility is temporary with an anchor in the UK, but for many budding academics longer-term mobility is a necessity if you are to secure a permanent position. That’s not to say that you should move countries for the sheer sake of it, rather that academic research is an international endeavour and the likelihood is that research groups in your field of interest will be situated in another country or on a far-off continent. Developing relevant skills and experience, receiving valuable mentoring and training as well as networking with potential future collaborators and colleagues inevitably means some degree of commitment to mobility.

To help those who are contemplating the prospect of ‘academic mobility’, I have compiled a list of resources below to help you to research and prepare for your next move, whether it’s a short-term local transition or something more international. It’s not an exhaustive list, but it contains links to articles, videos, blogs and books that may help you to feel more confident about making your next career move:


Foreign-born scientists: mobility patterns for 16 countries

Study on mobility patterns and career paths of EU researchers

Motivations of international academic mobility: the perspective of university students and professors

Time to go? (Inter) national mobility and appointment success of young academics

Global mobility: science on the move


Mobility: A strategic move

Away from home: Why the postdoc phase is crucial

How to break cultural and language barriers down in the lab

Crossing continents for your research career: A personal journey

International academic mobility: Towards a concentration of the minds in Europe

Moving to the US (podcast)

Fewer invited talks by women in evolutionary biology symposia


An American postdoc abroad

Sacrifices for science (podcast)

Putting down roots (personal story – Natasha Reikhel)


Negotiating the dual academic career deal (video)

Dual career academic couples

Dual-career couples (list of resources – USA)

Dual-career academics: the right start

Dual career academic couples: What universities need to know


Juggling the balls, having it all? Tips from a mother and part-time professor

The price you will pay for work-life balance

The life career rainbow (Super)


Euraxess: Researchers in Motion

The European Charter for researchers. The code of conduct for the recruitment of researchers

Flexible working: Solo scientist

Why building a start-up is probably your most sensible career path

The hidden costs of a career in scientific research

Retirement: Dollars and sense

Funding sources (scroll down list to find relevant information)

Academic career paths worldwide

Academic career maps in Europe


Academic mobility, in Nina Maadad , Malcolm Tight (ed.) Academic Mobility (International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, Volume 11) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.i

Lean In, 2015, Sheryl Sandberg

Women Don’t Ask, 2007, Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever

Professor Mommy – finding work-family balance in academia, 2014, Kristen Ghodsee.

Bon Voyage!

Subjective career choices

“I was thinking of applying for this postdoctoral post”, a PhD graduate recently informed me, referring to the job description he had brought with him to our careers interview. “The research involves working with fish and I worked on fish during my PhD”. It turns out the fish in question was zebrafish, a model organism for studying gene function and development. Many PhD graduates and postdocs limit their career choices as they search with familiar keywords for their next post, looking to replicate their previous experience. This can be a precarious career strategy with many researchers ending up in technician type roles.

It’s what I call ‘subjective’ career choice behaviour; that is, becoming fixated on the subject of study, rather than considering one’s research interests more broadly. It’s an easy trap to get into: as you move through the education system you can become more and more polarised: First, you choose your specialist subjects at 18 (although some curricula are less exacting than others), then you specialise further in your university degree, graduating with an in depth knowledge of your subjects of study, especially those from your final year and practical thesis. Following on from this, you may spend a year or two on a master’s degree, which then spurs you on to go even further down the proverbial ‘rabbit hole’ into a PhD, where you focus your attention on some minutiae of biology.

Broadening your horizons and extending your experience is vital if you are to succeed not only in research but in your career. Research group leaders and non-academic employers look for evidence of adaptability, creative problem solving, the ability to apply knowledge to new projects and systems. PhD students and postdoctoral researchers have the personal capacity to learn a wealth of these skills, not only due to their high level intellect and experiences, but also because the academic environment and culture encourages this kind of independent thinking. Your job is to recognise and take advantage of these attributes, test and extend yourself, learn new knowledge and skills, work on different systems and grow within your chosen area of interest and beyond. In this way, you’ll not only find your work more interesting and challenging, you’re more likely to increase your employability both within and outside of the academic career sectors.

Here is a list of actions you could consider taking:

  1. Look for research posts which are close to what you have done previously, but which extend your skills and lead to new knowledge and experiences.
  2. If you want to move away from your current field completely or test your ability to try out your own ideas, you could apply for a research fellowship, such as the Human Frontier Science Program, or look for postdoctoral posts where you will be able to learn new skills from the project and expertise within the lab with a view, ultimately, of leading your own research group.
  3. Join one or two learned society communities. Take advantage of benefits such as travel grants (to attend conferences or visit another lab), networking opportunities, awards and career support.
  4. Look for training opportunities, such as Summer schools, specialised initiatives (such as YES Biotechnology), workshops during scientific conferences, university courses, on-line learning or you could even undertake a master’s course (e.g. bioinformatics, data science, management).
  5. Get involved in extra-research activities such as outreach, committees, social activities, research associations, sports – this will help to enhance your personal transferable skills and may also provide unexpected opportunities.

Remember, life-long learning is exactly that!

Related post: Think “skill” not “DPhil”

Do you feel lucky?

According to the personal career stories of most people, including those with a PhD, luck and chance play a major role in career success.

Books have been written about the value of luck, such as the ‘Luck Factor’ and ‘Build your own Rainbow’, in which so-called ‘accidents’ (events over which we have no control) can determine our career paths.

In his TEDx talk, Bruce Walker talks about creating your own luck: “There’s no-one stopping you but you”, he concludes. On the other hand, Ritchie Etawu professes that you can bring bad luck upon yourself by taking the easy route, which requires minimum or no effort. He believes that to encourage good luck into your life, you need to put in some hard work!

So, how does ‘luck’ figure in your life and how can you enhance its effect on your own career? According to the theory of ‘Planned Happenstance’ proposed by Mitchell, Levin and Krumboltz, chance (otherwise known as unexpected career opportunities) can be harnessed via the following behaviours:

  1. Flexibility – if you’re able to adapt to technological developments, changing work cultures, helping others with their challenges, and generally flexing your own working practices to ever-changing global priorities, then you’re likely to remain employable in a range of disciplines, roles and industries.
  2. Curiosity – being interested in areas beyond your own sphere of interests can lead you into new environments and cultures, exposing you to new people, ideas and opportunities. This aids collaboration and cooperation, novel and innovative thinking, resulting in new perspectives.
  3. Taking a risk – not necessarily in the sense of ‘jumping into the unknown’, but a calculated risk which takes you out of your comfort zone and into the realms of new possibilities. It can feel scarey, but this is good as it means you’re learning new things and experiencing opportunities, which may take you along a new course or career path leading towards ‘success’.
  4. Being proactive – that is, not being passive. It’s easy to let others make decisions on your behalf or to wait for something to happen to you. Being proactive means taking a leadership role in your own life. Set yourself goals, even if they are everyday small achievements, make things happen for you, put in effort and energy – it all helps to make you more self-motivated and driven.
  5. Networking – taking advantage of the network of people you already know, as well as getting to know new people, who could assist you in your research or career is not cynical or opportunistic. Rather, it is a two-way mutually beneficial relationship between people who wish to build a relationship and cooperate with each other. Networking can be done face-to-face, for example at conferences, via email, phone or social media. Operating on your own is not encouraged by funding bodies or businesses nowadays, as they perceive that ‘two (or more) heads are better than one’.

If this makes sense to you, why not give it a try by putting one or more of these suggestions into action.